U. S. Geological Survey - Water Resources - Michigan District

Water Resources of Michigan

Hydrology of C-3 Watershed, Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan

US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation 01-4053
Lansing, Michigan 2001

By: Michael J. Sweat

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Proposed changes to watershed management practices near C-3 Pool at Seney National Wildlife Refuge will affect surface-water flow patterns, ground-water levels, and possibly local plant communities. Data were collected between fall 1998 and spring 2000 to document existing conditions and to assess potential changes in hydrology that might occur as a consequence of modifications to water management practices in C-3 watershed.

Minimum and maximum measured inflows and outflows for the study period are presented in light of proposed management changes to C-3 watershed. Streamflows ranged from 0 to 8.61 cubic meters per second. Low or zero flow was generally measured in late summer and early fall, and highest flows were measured during spring runoff and winter rain events. Ground-water levels varied by about a half meter, with levels closest to or above the land surface during spring runoff into the early summer, and with levels generally below land surface during late fall into early winter.

A series of optional management practices that could conserve and restore habitat of the C-3 watershed is described. Modifications to the existing system of a drainage ditch and control structures are examined, as are the possibilities of reconnecting streams to their historical channels and the construction of additional or larger control structures to further manage the distribution of water in the watershed. The options considered could reduce erosion, restore presettlement streamflow conditions, and modify the ground-water gradient.


Sweat, Michael J., 2001, Hydrology of C-3 Watershed, Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan, 2001, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4053

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