Water Resources of Michigan
Simulated Effects of Pumping Irrigation Wells on Ground-Water Levels in Western Saginaw County, Michigan
US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation 01-4227
Lansing, Michigan 2001
By: C.J. Hoard and D.B. Westjohn
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|U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GALE A. NORTON, Secretary
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Charles G. Groat, Director
|Prepared in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality|
|Any use of trade, product, or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.|
Figure 1. Location of study area and selected wells in Saginaw County, Michigan.
Figure 2. Potentiometric surface of the Sainaw aquifer and location of Saginaw Lowlands in the central Lower Peninsula of Michigan (Modified from Barton and other, 1996.).
Figure 3. Distribution of saline and fresh water in the Saginaw aquifer and locatio of Saginaw Lowlands in the central Lower Peninsula of Michigan (Modified from Westjohn and Weaver, 1998.)
Figure 4. Increase of chloride concentration as a function of time at two public-supply wells in western Saginaw County, Michigan.
Figure 5. Depth to water in the Marion Springs monitoring well for selected years, October through September, western Saginaw County, Michigan.
Figure 6. Depth to water in the Marion Springs monitoring well and the USGS MW, September 2000 through August 2001, western Saginaw County, Michigan.
Figure 7. Depth to water at USGS MW, June throught September 2001, western Saginaw County, Michigan.
Figure 8. Example of model discretization for axisymmetric flow simulations. (From Reilly and Harbaugh, 1993.)
Figure 9. Simulated drawdown at approximately one-half mile from a pumping well in the Saginaw aquifer, western Saginaw County, Michigan.
Figure 10. Simulated drawdown at different distances from a single irrigation well after 3 months pumping with a 12-hour pumping cycle, western Saginaw County, Michigan.
Table 1. Well location, pumping rate, and aquifer for irrigation wells used for model calibration
Table 2. Model parameters used for simulations
Table 3. Simulated drawdown compared to observed drawdown used for model calibration
Table 4. Summary of predicted drawdown after one month and three months of pumping, at selected distances
Table 5. Factors that can contribute to insufficient water supply at residential wells
Conversion Factors, Vertical Datum, and Abbreviations
For use of readers who prefer the International System of Units (SI), the conversion factors for terms used in this report are listed below.
|square mile (mi2)||2.59||square kilometer|
|foot per day (ft/d)||0.3048||meter per day|
Sea level: In this report "sea level" refers to National Geodetic
Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD of 1929), a geodetic datum derived from a general
adjustment of the first-order level nets of both the United States and Canada,
called Mean Sea Level of 1929.
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