Figure 1. Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties, Lower Peninsula of Michigan.
Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, commercial, and industrial use within the Tri-County region. The ground-water resource originates from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and percolates through underlying geological materials into permanently saturated rock formations beneath the earth's surface. Those saturated rock formations that readily transmit water to pumping wells are referred to as aquifers. In the Tri-County region, there are four aquifers associated with seven geologic formations (fig. 2).
Figure 2. Geologic formations and aquifers that underlie the Tri-County region (modified from Westjohn, Weaver, and Zacharias, 1994).
Figure 3. Ground-water withdrawals and population values for Lansing, Michigan.
Figure 4. Source of water for public supply systems.
About 36 Mgal/d was withdrawn from the Saginaw aquifer for public supply in 1992. The Saginaw aquifer is composed of the Grand River Formation and part of the Saginaw Formation and consists primarily of sandstone. The Saginaw aquifer underlies most of the Tri-County region and ranges from 0 to 300 ft. in thickness. This aquifer is the principal source of water for Tri-County residents. In 1992, more than 89 percent of the ground water withdrawn by public systems and more than 90 percent of the ground water withdrawn for self-supplied use was withdrawn from the Saginaw aquifer.
No water was withdrawn from the Parma-Bayport aquifer for public supply in 1992. The Parma-Bayport aquifer is composed of part of the Saginaw Formation and the Bayport Limestone and consists of limestone and sandstone. The Parma-Bayport aquifer ranges from 50 to 100 ft in thickness. Wells in the Parma-Bayport generally provide sufficient water for domestic needs in the southwestern part of Eaton County.
About 0.4 Mgal/d was withdrawn from the Marshall aquifer for public supply in 1992. The Marshall aquifer consists primarily of sandstone. The Marshall aquifer extends throughout the entire Tri-County region and ranges from 100 to 150 ft in thickness. The Marshall aquifer is an important source of water to domestic wells where it is overlain by glaciofluvial deposits in the southwestern part of Eaton County. Through-out the rest of the Tri-County region the Marshall aquifer yields saline (salty) water. No aquifers that contain usable water are present within the Coldwater Shale or lower formations.
Figure 5. Public supply delivery.
Luukkonen, C.L., 1995, Ground-Water Withdrawals in Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 226-95, 2 p.
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